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Traditional Syrian Clothing: Roots, Customs, and Its Cultural Impact

Enveloped by the historical heart of the Levant, the country of Syria proudly showcases its cultural heritage through its attire. From the bustling markets of ancient souks to the storied traditions of its people, Syrian clothing stands as a testament to the nation’s rich history and enduring customs.

The narrow embroidery and colorful patterns of garments such as the thawb and the abaya weave narratives of Syrian identity. Passed down through generations, these garments carry the essence of Syrian culture, evoking stories of resilience, unity, and shared heritage.

In Syria, traditional dressing embodies more than mere attire; it symbolizes cultural pride and continuity. With each stitch and motif, Syrian clothing style pays homage to the legacy of its ancestors, inviting the world to appreciate the beauty and significance ingrained in the fabric of Syrian society.

1. Historical Root

The Creation of Syrian Clothing

The Creation of Syrian Outfits Photo by The New Arab

Exploring Syrian traditional attire reveals a rich blend of cultural influences and artisanal artistry, reflecting centuries-old customs and societal norms.

Throughout history, Syrian women have crafted garments for various occasions, each piece carrying a unique narrative of identity and status. Traditional Syrian outfit is cherished as a symbol of pride and identity, passed down through generations, preserving cherished traditions and values.

Today, Syrian embroidery and garment-making continue to thrive, showcasing the enduring resilience and creativity of Syrian culture.

2. Enduring Syrian Garments

Women’s Attire

Syrian Clothes-Woman

Traditional Syrian dress for young women stands as a vibrant reflection of cultural heritage and identity. Adorned with intricate embroidery and different motifs, these garments illuminate the rich history and skilled artistry of Syrian culture.

From the elegant Thoub to the graceful Keffiyeh scarf, each piece carries forward the traditions and values cherished through generations, fostering a timeless bond with Syria’s storied past. Whether for everyday wear or special occasions, traditional Syrian dress exudes grace, beauty, and a profound sense of pride in one’s heritage.

Men’s Attire

Traditional Clothing for Men in Syria

Traditional Syrian clothing for men is a proud symbol of cultural heritage and identity. Characterized by intricate details and rich colors, these garments reflect the skilled artistry and storied history of Syrian culture.

From the dignified Keffiyeh scarf to the tailored Sirwal pants, each piece embodies the traditions and values passed down through generations. The Thawb, a flowing robe-like garment, adds an element of elegance to the ensemble, while the Bisht, a traditional cloak, provides both warmth and prestige.

3. Remarkable Traditional Costumes in Syria

Thoub (Robe)

Syrian Outfits-Thoub (Robe)-Men

The Thoub (Robe) is central to traditional Syrian attire, crafted meticulously from materials like velvet, artificial silk, cotton fabrics, and wool symbolizing elegance and cultural heritage.

For men, the Thoub is a long, flowing robe made from luxurious cloth like silk or velvet, adorned with intricate embroidery showcasing traditional Syrian motifs. Accessories like the Kufi headdress or a colorful Shemagh scarf often complement the attire.

Similarly, women’s Thoub exhibits meticulous attention to detail, with variations in style ranging from fitted bodices to flowing skirts with dark colors, all featuring delicate embroidery and embellishments. Materials such as silk or cotton are chosen for their comfort and aesthetic appeal.

Syrian Outfits-Thoub (Robe)-Woman


Syrian Traditional Clothing -Keffiyeh

The Keffiyeh, a traditional headscarf worn by both men and women, symbolizes Syrian cultural identity and heritage. Crafted from lightweight cotton or a blend, it offers comfort and versatility with its distinctive checkered pattern. Commonly styled in various ways, it represents unity and resistance.

Men fold it into a triangle and secure it with an agal, while women elegantly drape it over their heads, adding cultural significance to their attire.



The Sirwal is crucial in traditional Syrian outfits, commonly worn beneath the Thoub, particularly by men, ensuring both comfort and cultural authenticity.

Crafted from lightweight and breathable materials like cloth blends, the Sirwal offers optimal comfort, perfect for Syria’s warm climate.

With its relaxed fit and gathered waistband, the Sirwal provides flexibility and comfort, while added details like pleats or drawstrings offer further adjustability.

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The Abaya is a vital component of Syrian attire, primarily worn by women for modesty. Crafted from lightweight cloth like linen or polyester blends, it offers comfort and coverage suitable for Syria’s climate.

Featuring long, flowing sleeves and a loose silhouette, the Abaya drapes gracefully over the wearer. Some styles may include subtle embellishments for added elegance. Symbolizing cultural identity and tradition, the Abaya is worn for various occasions, reflecting Syria’s rich heritage.



The Bisht stands as a remarkable piece of Syrian clothing, often draped over the Thoub during significant events, particularly by men. It exudes grandeur and elegance, symbolizing prestige and cultural heritage.

Crafted with meticulous detail, the Bisht is typically made from luxurious materials like velvet or silk, featuring intricate embroidery and decorative elements. Its opulent design and rich texture make it a standout garment for special occasions.

Draped over the shoulders, the Bisht commands attention with its flowing silhouette and majestic presence. Some variations may include embellishments such as metallic threadwork or beading, enhancing its allure.


A Syrian Woman in Farashah

The Farashah holds a significant place in Syrian women’s clothing, commonly worn as a traditional skirt layered beneath the Thoub or Abaya. Crafted with meticulous detail, it offers both comfort and style.

Made from lightweight fabrics like linen, the Farashah ensures ease of movement while maintaining a graceful silhouette. Its design varies from simple to intricately decorated skirts with satin stitches, reflecting individual preferences and cultural influences.

Worn beneath the Thoub or Abaya, the Farashah enhances the overall ensemble, adding depth and elegance to the attire. Its versatility allows for various styling options suitable for both casual and formal occasions.

A Classic Syrian Woman in Farashah


A Syrian Woman with Headscarves

Headscarves are essential in Syrian attire, offering various styles for women, including the hijab, shayla, and khimar. Each holds its unique significance, reflecting cultural identity and modesty.

The hijab, made from lightweight fabrics like chiffon, covers the head and neck while leaving the face exposed, symbolizing modesty, and is commonly worn by Muslim women.

The Shayla, crafted from materials such as satin or polyester, features a long rectangular shape and elegantly drapes over the head, complementing formal attire with simplicity and charm.

The khimar, typically made from lightweight materials like viscose, provides ample coverage extending to the shoulders and upper body, offering practicality for daily men and women wear while maintaining modesty and freedom of movement.


A Syrian Woman with Ornaments

Accessories play a vital role in Syrian outfits, enhancing ensembles with flair and refinement. Embroidered fabric belts cinch the waist of garments like the Thoub, adding elegance. Scarves, often adorned with embroidery or sequins, add glamour when draped over the head or shoulders.

Jewelry, including silver necklaces, earrings, bracelets, and rings crafted from precious metals and gemstones, accentuates the overall look. Coins and mirrors are integrated into accessories, symbolizing prosperity. Tassels, fringes, beading, and sequins add texture and movement, drawing attention to intricate details.

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Footwear is integral to traditional Syrian attire, showcasing styles like babouche (slippers) or sandals worn by both men and women. Crafted with precision, these shoes offer functionality while signifying cultural heritage.

Babouche, classic leather slippers, are a staple in Syrian fashion, featuring a curved toe and collapsible heel for easy wear. Adorned with intricate stitching or colorful embroidery, they add elegance to the wearer’s ensemble.

Sandals, valued for their versatility and breathability, are also favored choices. Made from durable materials like leather, Syrian sandals come in various styles, providing comfort and stability for everyday wear.

4. Syrian Fashion in Different Regions

Northern Syria

Traditional Clothing in Northern Syria (Middle East Country)-Woman and Man

In Northern Syria, the integration of Turkish and Kurdish elements into traditional dress enriches the sartorial landscape.

Turkish influence is evident in the vibrant colors and opulent fabrics, such as fine transparent silk and velvet. Intricate cross-stitch embroidery, adorned with floral motifs and geometric patterns, embellishes garments like the Thoub and headscarves, showcasing Turkish craftsmanship.

Similarly, Kurdish influence is reflected in the use of earthy tones and fabrics like wool and cotton. Bold geometric patterns, including stripes and checkerboards, are prevalent in garments like the Sirwal and traditional vests. Draped silhouettes, characteristic of Kurdish clothing, are also notable.

Eastern Syria

A Woman with Traditional Dress in Eastern Syria (Middle East Country)

In Eastern Syria, traditional clothing reflects Bedouin and nomadic traditions, embodying the region’s cultural heritage. This attire, influenced by the lifestyle and customs of these communities, is crafted from natural materials like wool, mixed silk, cotton, and camel hair, offering protection in the harsh desert environment.

Garments, such as long robes known as thobes or dishdashas, are loose-fitting and lightweight, facilitating movement and ventilation. Head coverings like keffiyehs or scarves shield individuals from the sun, sand, and wind prevalent in the desert.

Accessories, featuring intricate cross-stitch embroidery or tribal motifs, adorn Eastern Syrian attire. Belts, sashes, and shawls serve decorative and practical purposes, adding flair to outfits while securing garments or carrying essentials.

Central Syria

Traditional Dress in Central Syria (Middle East Country)

Traditional attire in Central Syria often incorporates elements borrowed from urban fashion trends, reflecting the cosmopolitan nature of the region. While retaining traditional silhouettes and designs, garments may feature modern fabrics such as cotton and linen, offering both comfort and style.

Elegant robes and dresses remain prominent in Central Syrian clothing, tailored to perfection to exude sophistication and grace. Intricate cross-stitch embroidery, delicate patterns, and meticulous detailing enhance the allure of these traditional ensembles, showcasing exquisite craftsmanship.

Accessories such as waist belts, adorned silk headscarves, and intricately designed jewelry add a touch of glamour and complement the outfit beautifully.

Southern Syria

Traditional Dress in Southern Syria

Traditional attire in Southern Syria often combines elements from Bedouin and Palestinian styles, showcasing unique silhouettes and designs. Crafted from natural materials such as wool, cotton, and linen, these garments are chosen for their durability and comfort in the arid climate of the region.

The influence of Bedouin culture is evident in the loose-fitting robes and headscarves worn for protection from the sun and sand. Palestinian influences are seen in the intricate cross-stitch embroidery and vibrant patterns that adorn these garments, adding color and elegance.

Accessories play a significant role, with embroidered belts, beaded jewelry, and traditional footwear complementing the overall look. These accessories often hold symbolic meaning, representing cultural identity and heritage.

Traditional Syrian Clothing: A Recap

Traditional attire in Syria reflects the nation’s rich cultural heritage, blending influences from various regions and communities. From the intricate cross-stitch embroidery of the Thoub to the graceful draping of the Abaya, these garments serve as tangible expressions of Syrian identity and tradition.

In modern-day Syria, traditional clothing continues to hold significance as a symbol of cultural pride and connection to the past. Whether worn for ceremonial occasions or everyday men and women wear, these costumes offer a meaningful link to Syria’s cultural textile artwork and customs.

Traditional Syrian clothing celebrates the unity found within its cultural mosaic, showcasing shared traditions and values that transcend societal divisions. By preserving and upholding these garments, Syria honors its cultural legacy while embracing the evolving nature of its identity.