Italy is a land of mesmerizing buildings that reflect its rich artistic and cultural heritage. As a group of writers who have studied art and architecture in this captivating country, we invite you to explore the world of Italian buildings.
Architecture is the art of designing and constructing structures that are both practical and beautiful. In Italy, buildings go beyond functionality; they tell stories and evoke emotions. From the Grand Colosseum in Rome to the graceful palazzos of Venice, each structure is a testament to Italy’s pursuit of perfection.
Join us on a journey through Italy’s architectural wonders, where history and beauty intertwine.
- Famous Italian Buildings in Different Eras
- Etruscans ( 8th To 3rd Centuries BC )
- Ancient Rome ( 8th Centuries BC To 5th Centuries AD )
- Medieval (5th To 15th Centuries AD)
- Gothic ( 12th to 16th Centuries AD )
- Renaissance (14th to 17th Centuries AD )
- Modern and Contemporary ( 19th Century AD to present )
- What are Italian buildings made of?
“He who does not master the nude cannot understand the principles of architecture.”Michelangelo
But before we dive into history let’s enhance your reading experience by including some photos from each period.
Modern and contemporary
Famous Italian Buildings in Different Eras
After feasting our eyes on these mesmerizing structures, it’s time to explore the rich history of Italian architecture and discover the most remarkable buildings from each era. And guess what? We’ve handpicked exciting videos for you to immerse yourself in the magic of these architectural marvels. So, let’s set off on this incredible adventure together!
Etruscans ( 8th To 3rd Centuries BC )
The Etruscans and Greek were ancient civilizations in southern Italy (8th-3rd century BC) with impressive architectural achievements and monuments. Few buildings remain today from Etruscan and Greek architecture. Here are some notable ones:
The Porta Augusta, Perugia
The Porta Augusta in Perugia is a well-preserved Etruscan gate, dating back to the 3rd century BC, and part of the Etruscan Wall in Italy.
- The gate is part of a 2,900m-long and 9.1m-high set of walls.
- The arch is made of travertine stone without mortar and has large stone blocks.
- The inscription of Augusta Prussia can be read on the inside, which was the city’s name after its reconstruction in 40 BC.
The Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri
The Tomb of the Reliefs in Cerveteri City in Italy is a well-preserved Etruscan architectural style burial chamber from the 4th century BC with intricate carvings and reliefs.
- The tomb belonged to the Matuna family, as per the inscriptions inside.
- The rectangular room has a stepped door with a downward slope at the entrance.
- The tomb uses a type of volcanic stone commonly found in Etruscan constructions.
Temple of Jupiter, Tarquinia
The Temple of Jupiter in Tarquinia city in Italy, is a huge and remarkable Etruscan temple. It has a rectangular shape with a deep porch and vibrant murals showing stories from Etruscan mythology and daily life.
- The temple is the oldest large temple in Rome and the first wooden building.
- The construction shared features with Etruscan architecture.
- The porch is supported by two pillars in front.
Ancient Rome ( 8th Centuries BC To 5th Centuries AD )
Roman Empire excelled in architectural styles, engineering, military, and culture from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD in Italy. Colosseum and Pantheon are the famous Roman architecture of the Roman Empire era. Ancient Rome’s legacy in law, literature, philosophy, and science still impacts modern culture.
“It is not the beauty of a building you should look at; it’s the construction of the foundation that will stand the test of time.”David Allan Coe
The Colosseum, built in the city of Rome, Italy, from 72 to 80 AD, in the western Roman Empire era, is the world’s most massive amphitheater.
It stands 48 meters tall, has a perimeter of 189 meters, and could hold up to 80,000 people. Despite damage over time during Roman Empire, its ruins remain a significant tourist attraction and a symbol of Rome’s cultural legacy.
- The building had tunnels and underground cells for holding gladiators and animals.
- Colosseum was constructed with a mix of stone and concrete, including tuff, limestone, and water.
- Colosseum was adorned with sculptures, frescoes, and other artworks, some of which are now lost from this monument.
The Pantheon structure, built in 125 AD as a Roman temple for all the gods, is one of the best preserved Roman architecture. Despite earthquakes, fires, and invasions, it survived and was converted into a Christian church in the 7th century.
- Pantheon boasts the world’s largest unsupported dome, crafted from concrete.
- The most striking element of the dome is a circular aperture at its peak that serves as the sole source of natural light.
- The temple’s Corinthian-style portico is upheld by 16 marble columns, each standing over 11 meters tall.
Positioned at the core of ancient Rome city, the Roman Forum is a rectangular plaza that served as the focal point for political, religious, and social activities.
Renowned as a vital archaeological site, it holds significant global significance due to its historical role and cultural significance.
- The Roman Forum is a complex of ancient buildings and outdoor areas, including iconic structures like temples, basilicas, arches, and columns.
- Notable features include the Arch of Titus, the Temple of Saturn, and the Basilica of Emelia.
Piazza del Duomo, Milan
Located in the vibrant heart of Milan, del Duomo stands as the city’s central square, aptly named after the magnificent Milan Cathedral.
With a history stretching back to the Roman era, this iconic square has been a witness to countless significant events throughout the ages.
- Piazza del Duomo is one of the largest squares in Italy, covering an area of about 17,000 square meters.
- The square is home to the iconic Milan Cathedral, along with several shops and restaurants.
- Other notable attractions in the square include the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II and Palazzo Carminati, making it a popular tourist destination.
Medieval (5th To 15th Centuries AD)
In the Middle Ages, Italy built many remarkable buildings that exhibit the country’s fascinating history and culture. These structures were praised for their beauty, intricate designs, and religious significance.
Santa Maria Maggiore
Santa Maria Maggiore is Rome’s largest Marian Catholic faith church and one of its seven basilicas, known for its breathtaking classic architecture and fascinating history.
- It has a spacious nave, aisles, and a semicircle at the end.
- The Romanesque facade has a large central entrance and two smaller side entrances.
- The entrances are decorated with intricate mosaics and sculptures.
- The church has a 14th-century bell tower, the tallest in Rome.
Cathedral of Modena
Modena Cathedral, located in Italy, is a stunning Romanesque cathedral renowned for its architecture, sculptures, and paintings. It was constructed during the 11th and 12th centuries.
- Modena Cathedral has an 86-meter-high bell tower, one of Italy’s tallest.
- The bell tower has a square base and an octagonal spire.
- The cathedral’s facade has intricate sculptures and reliefs depicting biblical scenes and the life of Christ.
- The nave is separated from the side aisles by columns and arches.
The leaning tower of Pizza
Built during the 12th century, the Leaning Tower of Pisa is a bell tower in Italy, built on soft ground, famous for its noticeable tilt of almost four degrees. It took 199 years to complete, and the tilt was caused by the bending of its bases.
- Engineers tried to compensate by strengthening the foundations with stone and building the upper floors with one side taller than the other.
- The tower has eight floors and a spiral staircase leading to the top. Seven bells were installed in the 18th century.
- The ground floor has a vault supported by engaged columns with classic Corentine architectural style capitals.
Francesco Sforza built Milan’s 15th-century castle as a fortress, home, and cultural hub. Today, it houses museums, art collections, and historical treasures, attracting many people to visit.
- Features a grand facade with a central courtyard and towers
- Adorned with sculptures and reliefs showing Italian history
- Inside, people can visit decorated rooms and halls filled with artwork
Gothic ( 12th to 16th Centuries AD )
The Gothic period in Western Europe (12th to 16th centuries) showcased distinctive art and architecture, emphasizing religion. Some of the most famous buildings of Gothic architecture include Milan Cathedral, Church of Santa Croce, and Siena Cathedral.
Milan Cathedral is an impressive feat of architectural and engineering mastery, taking almost 600 years to complete. Construction started in 1386 and finished in 1965, making it the largest church in Italy, with a capacity for up to 40,000 people.
- The facade of the cathedral is made of pink marble that was transported from a quarry in a lake.
- The cathedral is adorned with 135 garlands and 3,400 statues, making it a true masterpiece of Gothic art and architecture.
- Stained glass windows include the largest one above the main altar, measuring 16 meters by 5 meters.
- The floor of the nave features an ancient sundial dating back to the early 18th century, which is one of the oldest in Europe
Church of Santa Croce, Florence
Santa Croce, a 13th-century church in Florence, took 170 years to build with a strict design reflecting Franciscan values. It houses remarkable artwork and serves as the burial place for renowned Italians such as Michelangelo and Galileo.
- Santa Croce is a cluster of 16 churches, each with stunning works of art and religious iconography.
- Its facade is adorned with intricate reliefs and sculptures made of white and green marble.
- The floor plan follows an Egyptian cross symbolizing St. Francis and spans 115 meters, with a nave and two aisles divided by octagonal columns.
Siena Cathedral is a medieval church in Italy initially dedicated to the Virgin Mary and now dedicated to the Assumption of Mary.
- Siena Cathedral has a unique exterior made of black and white striped marble, which is rare among Gothic churches.
- The facade is designed with intricate sculptures and reliefs depicting biblical scenes and the life of Christ.
- The cathedral’s bell tower rises over 77 meters and is known for its elaborate decorations, adding to the grandeur of the cathedral.
Giotto’s bell tower
Giotto’s bell tower(Giotto’s Campanile), a Gothic bell tower in Florence’s Piazza Duomo, is a 14th-century masterpiece of Italian architecture.
- Giotto’s Campanile is over 84 meters tall and made of brick and marble and has intricate sculptures and decorations.
- The tower has five levels with arched windows and decorative motifs.
- Climbing the 400 steps leads to the top level of Giotto’s bell tower where the bells chime to mark the hours and festivities.
Renaissance (14th to 17th Centuries AD )
The Renaissance flourished in Italy from the 14th to 17th century, with Florence as its hub. Notable most famous buildings from this period include:
Palazzo Pitti, a 15th-century building in Florence, built as a private residence for the Pitti family, now houses notable art galleries and museums.
- Palazzo Pitti in Florence features a rough-textured rustic stone cladding on its facade.
- The facade also boasts arched windows, columns, and a grand central balcony.
- The Renaissance-style courtyard boasts precious architecture, with two levels of arches supported by columns, decorated with fountains and statues.
St. Peter’s Church
St. Peter’s Basilica, located in Vatican City, is a globally recognized Catholic church and an impressive wonder of Renaissance architecture. It took over 120 years to construct, from 1506 to 1626, making it one of the world’s largest churches.
- The church’s unique feature is its dome, which is the tallest in the world and designed by architect Michelangelo.
- The nave of the church of saint peter’s basilica is decorated with a row of columns, sculptures, and artworks.
- The grand bronze baldachin covers the high altar and is considered a masterpiece of Baroque art in peter’s basilica.
- The bronze statue of St. Peter, one of Jesus’ disciples, seated on a throne is located in the central nave.
Doge’s Palace in Venice is a Gothic-style structure built in the 14th century located in the famous Piazza San Marco.
- The palace boasts a mix of Gothic and Renaissance architecture with intricate stonework and decorative elements on its facade.
- Doge’s palace courtyard is a stunning open space surrounded by arches and adorned with sculptures.
- The Bridge of Sighs, a small enclosed bridge, connects the building to the nearby prison.
Baroque art and architecture in Italy, dominant from the late 16th to mid-18th century, was known for its grandeur and ornate style, characterized by elaborate facades, grand staircases, and impressive interiors. Famous buildings include:
Church of San Giovanni
St. John’s Basilica, one of Rome’s four main papal churches, was founded in the 4th century by Emperor Constantine, who donated the land to the Bishop of Rome in Italy.
- San Giovanni boasts a stunning Baroque facade with intricate stonework, sculptures, a large central portal, and two bell towers.
- Its interior is adorned with beautiful wall paintings, sculptures, and mosaics.
- The church tower houses a gorgeous mosaic depicting Christ as the ruler of the world.
Palazzo Barberini is a 17th-century palace in Rome, built for the influential Barberini family and is a prime example of Baroque architecture in Rome.
- Its facade features an imposing design with stonework, sculptures, and a large balcony.
- The palace interior is adorned with murals, paintings, and sculptures.
- The surrounding Italian-style gardens are decorated with fountains, statues, and hedges.
Santa Maria della in Venice
Santa Maria della Salute is a 17th-century church in Venice built to thank the Virgin Mary for saving the city from the plague.
- Wooden dome decorated with frescoes and covered with lead.
- Grand facade with two giant columns, a large central doorway, and sculptures, including a statue of the Virgin Mary.
- Altar containing important relics like a real cross and a silver reliquary with the bones of St. George.
Neoclassical architecture arose in the 18th century with a focus on symmetry, balance, and the values of antiquity, reason, and rationality. It thrived until the 19th century.
Alla Scala Theater in Milan
The Teatro Alla Scala is a famous 18th-century opera house located in Milan, Italy. It has a great reputation for its rich history and top-quality performances, attracting people to visit from all over the world.
- The theater is famous for its massive six-ton crystal and bronze chandelier hanging in the center of the hall.
- The neoclassical-style exterior has a grand facade with a large portico supported by eight columns.
- Inside, the horseshoe-shaped auditorium features six rows of boxes with lavish decorations and comfortable seating..
The Brera Palace, located in Milan’s Brera district, is a stunning neoclassical palace built in the 16th century as a Jesuit college.
- Brera Palace has a grand neoclassical facade with a central courtyard and arches and columns.
- The interior is adorned with ornate wall paintings, sculptures, and decorations.
- It houses cultural institutions such as an art gallery, library, and fine arts academy.
The Simplon Gate, or Arch of Peace, is a stunning neoclassical structure in Milan inspired by the Arch of Constantine. It was constructed in the early 19th century and is a must-see landmark in the city.
- It consists of a central arch flanked by two smaller arches, adorned with columns, sculptures, and reliefs.
- One of its inscriptions pays tribute to Napoleon’s Army, as it was constructed in the early 19th century.
Modern and Contemporary ( 19th Century AD to present )
The Pirelli Tower in Milan, Italy, a modernist skyscraper built in the 1950s, is a prime example of functional and geometric design with 32 floors and a height of 127 meters.
- It was the tallest office building in Europe and Italy when built, made of strong concrete and steel.
- The walls have glass and aluminum panels with three rows of windows and metal separators.
The Allianz Tower is a striking skyscraper in Milan, Italy completed in 2015, soaring to 209 meters with 50 floors above ground and 3 basement floors.
- The Allianz Tower has a unique twisting shape, achieved by rotating each floor as the building rises.
- It has a reinforced concrete core with a steel frame and a distinctive facade of curved glass panels.
- The tower is energy-efficient with double-glazed windows, solar panels, and a rainwater collection system.
Casa Malaparte on the island of Capri, Italy, designed by Adalberto Libera in the late 1930s, is a striking house with a red color, clear lines, and dramatic location on a rocky promontory overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, making it an iconic example of modernist architecture.
- Casa Malaparte has an iconic rooftop terrace with steps and is built on several levels
- The terrace offers panoramic views of the sea and landscape
- Its interior has a minimalistic design and natural materials
What are Italian buildings made of?
Discover the materials behind the beauty of Italian architecture! Learn about the history and regional influences that shaped the most commonly used building materials in Italy.
Stone has been a beloved building material in Italy since the 8th century for thousand of years. It’s used for everything from foundations to decorative elements like columns and statues. Famous Italian buildings made of stone include the Valley of Temples and the old Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore.
Italian builders have used bricks since the 8th-century Etruscan era, constructing walls, arches, and other elements. Famous Italian brick buildings include the Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore and the Church of San Francesco.
Marble, valued for its beauty and durability, has been used in all parts of Italian buildings since the Etruscan and Roman eras. Famous buildings made of marble include the Pantheon, the Church of San Lorenzo, and St. Peter’s Church.
Terracotta has been a versatile building material in Italy since the 19th century, used for various applications including ceiling tiles and decorative elements. The dome of the Florence Cathedral is a famous building made of terracotta in Italian architecture.
While the use of wood in Italian buildings is less common than stone and marble, it has been used in Italian architecture, especially for the ceilings and roofs of Etruscan and Romanesque churches, for centuries. One of the most famous Italian buildings made of wood is Palazzo della Ragione.
Roman concrete, known as opus caementicium, was a durable construction material used in ancient Rome. It incorporated hydraulic-setting cement, aggregates, and pozzolanic ash, making it versatile and long-lasting. Its self-repairing properties and use in various structures showcase its strength and innovation.
Iron was used in Italian architecture during the 19th-century industrial revolution for constructing railway stations and large buildings. The famous building Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, built in 1865, was the first Italian building made of iron, glass, and steel. Iron decorative elements gained popularity during this time.
The glass was used in the Middle Ages for windows, curtain walls, and other decorative elements. But in the 20th century, the use of glass in Italian construction was widespread. The MAXXI Museum of Contemporary Art in Rome is made of glass and concrete with an impressive angular design.
We hope this article has sparked your creativity and brought you joy through these magnificent works. For more in-depth exploration, we recommend delving into our article on Italy Architecture.